Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2420484 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24204842421362879ribosomal biogenesis GTPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24216662422190525signal peptidase IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2422249242259334550S ribosomal protein L19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24227442423466723tRNA guanine-N1--methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2423457242395149516S rRNA-processing protein RimMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24240642424291228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2424312242456024930S ribosomal protein S16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
242459124259401350signal recognition particle proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24259532426285333DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24265092427420912signal recognition particle-docking protein FtsYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
242758324311643582chromosome segregation protein SMCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24311772431305129hypothetical protein
243142824325191092radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24325122433216705ribonuclease IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24333282433561234acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
243363924346461008glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase PlsXQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2434736243491818350S ribosomal protein L32QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24349322435432501ribosomal protein L32 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
243555024367431194acetate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24368832437881999phosphotransacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP