Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2367171 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236717123684481278tRNA uridine 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl modification protein GidAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
236849923699291431adenylosuccinate lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23701812370402222hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23704302370687258phosphocarrier protein HPrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237079823719911194aspartate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23721362372492357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
237248923737721284hypothetical proteinBLASTP
23737912374657867phosphoribose diphosphatedecaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23748202375080261stage V sporulation protein SQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237521923767601542phosphodiesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237699523780531059recombinase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23782012378785585CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
237876923801061338RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238020123824772277DNA translocase FtsKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23829582383650693Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238389823851031206aspartate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23851192385391273PRC-barrel domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238546823867691302M16 family peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
238694423890522109polynucleotide phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2389316238963031530S ribosomal protein S15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23897122390632921bifunctional riboflavin kinaseFMN adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23906452391514870tRNA pseudouridine synthase BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23915152392477963DHH family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23924672392829363ribosome-binding factor AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
239286023949262067translation initiation factor IF-2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23949442395261318ribosomal protein L7Ae family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23952482395520273hypothetical proteinBLASTP
239558023969531374transcription elongation factor NusAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
23969702397431462hypothetical proteinBLASTP
239773624020344299DNA polymerase III PolCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP