Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2265475 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226547522668181344xanthineuracil permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22672542268153900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
226849422698131320amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227009222708657742-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227094222725731632hypothetical proteinBLASTP
227287422739231050electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22739422274727786electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227476622758991134acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227616422772911128R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227729122785231233R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227858622798001215hydroxyacyl-CoAR-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22801822280502321dinitrogenase iron-molybdenum cofactor biosynthesisQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22805982281443846iron-sulfur binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22814342282264831iron-sulfur binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22822892282648360dinitrogenase iron-molybdenum cofactor family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22832372283614378hypothetical protein
22839102284674765chemotaxis protein MotBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22846922285477786flagellar motor protein MotAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228616622877821617amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22880932288716624hypothetical proteinBLASTP