Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:2171151 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217115121731061956tetracycline resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217363621753061671hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21758542176144291microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21762182176868651propanediol utilization protein PduL-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217686821784661599acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21785012179298798microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21793192179981663ethanolamine utilization protein EutQ-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21801802180443264polyhedral organelle formation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21804402180742303hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21808202181665846ethanolamine utilization protein EutJ family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21816472182375729hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21823822182828447EutPPduV family GTP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21828252183178354ethanolamine utilization protein EutS-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21832182184171954glycyl-radical enzyme activating family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218433521868752541formate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218692521884181494aldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21884562188764309microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21887882189084297microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21893882189654267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
218964121907531113hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21912392192069831MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219218621933281143alcohol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219384121951421302MATE efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP