Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:120119 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120119120757639zinc-dependent hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1211991243153117isoleucyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
124466125464999LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1256801297324053hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1298071308741068mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferasemannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1312101324991290hypothetical proteinBLASTP
132504133310807hypothetical proteinBLASTP
133330134076747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1343011356831383radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1358701371441275sugar-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1372461383611116mannosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1385271395371011spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139552139746195hypothetical protein
139773140540768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1405531415661014spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1419211430481128glycoside hydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1431651441691005spore coat protein CotSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP