Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:444801 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4448014474012601clpB proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
447747448475729CobBCobQ family glutamine amidotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4485334498941362UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide synthetase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
450159451139981mannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4514884526031116lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
452711453565855UDP pyrophosphate phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45562045569576tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4588854590011175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45901045908475tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
459298460161864metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4602984610207231-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4617654631261362HMGL-related enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4632704651951926aconitate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
465231466229999isocitrateisopropylmalate family dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
466481467263783polar amino acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4677824695481767NaH antiporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
469575469790216hypothetical proteinBLASTP