Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:419443 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4194434208581416sodiumsolute symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4220884234071320RnfABCDGE type electron transport complex subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
423430424362933RnfABCDGE type electron transport complex subunit DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
424362425033672RnfABCDGE type electron transport complex subunit GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
425044425646603electron transport complex protein RsxEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
425697426275579RnfABCDGE type electron transport complex subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
426289427122834ferredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4275024285901089amidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
428763429299537hypothetical proteinBLASTP
429317429709393hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4298244308581035apbE family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4317064337602055methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4344374361671731ATP-dependent metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4363874374421056hypothetical protein
437417437866450ribonuclease HQuickGO ontologyBLASTP