Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3809044 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38090443809529486hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38096363810067432hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38102483811153906LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381124138124371197subtilase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38124723813353882LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38133823814329948D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38145293815368840acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38154153816284870acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyl transferase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381630438176501347biotin carboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381768238181164353R-hydroxymyristoyl-ACP dehydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38181363818612477acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3818616381985412393-oxoacyl-ACP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
381987438206207473-ketoacyl-ACP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38206383821582945malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
382160338225299272-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38226553822879225acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
382292038239009813-oxoacyl-ACP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38238933824369477MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3824385382544310592-nitropropane dioxygenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38255403826475936peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38266563827642987DNA replication protein DnaDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38276353828612978DNA replication protein DnaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3828782382885877tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3829093382916977tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3829178382925376tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3829431382950777tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3829518382959376tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38298583830667810hypothetical proteinBLASTP
38306803831054375CoA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
383123538324641230pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP