Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3753527 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375352737549721446MazG family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375498737565221536stage V sporulation protein BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37566553757206552stage V sporulation protein TQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375740537584151011peptidyl-prolyl isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375849937620053507transcription-repair coupling factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37620333762602570peptidyl-tRNA hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376271237638841173proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376391937653281410sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37653293766015687DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37661953767154960ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376717537685481374bifunctional N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferaseglucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37687103768997288regulatory protein SpoVGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37691003769915816pur operon repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
377011537714911377UDP-N-acetylmuramate--L-alanine ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37715563771864309hypothetical proteinBLASTP