Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3711692 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371169237127531062DNA integrity scanning protein DisAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371277237141301359DNA repair protein RadAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371425037166852436negative regulator of genetic competence MecBClpCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
371668737177301044ATPguanido phosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37177353718262528UVR domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37182853718749465transciptional repressor CtsRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37191453719375231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
371972237217942073elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3721982372205675tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
3722084372215875tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
372216737222831175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3727240372731576tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
372740537275211175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373280937341851377UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373501137364021392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373672237382361515lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37382553738737483transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37388683739695828hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37397453740716972dihydrouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37407263741502777pantothenate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374165737433301674formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374353337453381806ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP