Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3629250 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36292503629927678transaldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36299463630593648haloacid dehalogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36306173631402786sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36314223631787366PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363200336330071005PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IIBCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36330203633565546PTS system glucitolsorbitol-specific transporter subunit IICQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36336083634003396glucitol operon activator proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363401736350661050L-iditol 2-dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36351013636072972glucitol operon regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363642736377761350phosphoglucosamine mutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3639192364026210712-ketoisovalerate ferredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364027836404872102-oxoacidacceptor oxidoreductase subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36405893641251663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
364151436425841071butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36426133643524912phosphate butyryltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364351736446111095butyrate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364471236463101599oxidoreductase FAD-bindingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364631236475921281hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36475623648410849hypothetical proteinBLASTP