Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3463736 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
346373634647401005D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
346492734659371011D-lactate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
346673534679131179hypothetical proteinBLASTP
346813134693271197electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34693453470139795electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347015234712851134acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347145234725761125R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347257834738011224R-phenyllactate dehydratase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34738063474600795R-phenyllactate dehydratase activatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347460034758381239E-cinnamoyl-CoAR-phenyllactate CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347589234775231632AMP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347798934793111323branched-chain amino acid transport system II carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
347977034813021533GMP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
348131534827691455inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34832093483958750PP-loop family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
348403734856621626chaperonin GroELQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34856923485979288co-chaperonin GroESQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34862953486939645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34869343487668735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
348812134896141494Fe hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
348978734907049188-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
349085434922391386oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34922393493129891ferredoxin-NADP reductase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34933603493992633redox-sensing transcriptional repressor RexQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
349419234961141923drug resistance ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34964553497219765LytTr family DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
349722034988541635sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
349909735005151419carbon starvation protein CstAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP