Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3409185 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34091853409595411hypothetical protein
34096503409895246hypothetical protein
34099473410375429hypothetical protein
34105943411319726CAAX amino terminal protease family proteinQuickGO ontology
34113433411927585ribosome biogenesis GTP-binding protein YsxCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341194234142632322ATP-dependent protease LaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341440134160801680ATP-dependent protease LonBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341620834174971290ATP-dependent protease ATP-binding subunit ClpXQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34175173418101585ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
341822734195191293trigger factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34196973420482786AP endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34205893421401813hypothetical proteinBLASTP
34216153422190576orotate phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34222243423120897dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34231203423875756dihydroorotate dehydrogenase electron transfer subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34240203424871852orotidine 5-phosphate decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
342489534260851191dihydroorotase multifunctional complex typeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34261073426547441aspartate carbamoyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
34265493427472924aspartate carbamoyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP