Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3316000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33162793317178900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33173333318040708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
331824833198191572ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33198213320516696ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3321122332119776tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3321201332127777tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3321283332135876tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33214233322313891Hsp33-like chaperoninQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33223513323091741hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33231773323449273small acid-soluble spore proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33237483324707960oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
332470733257261020oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33257403326657918oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33266733327602930oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
332768333293651683oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter oligopeptidedipeptide-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33298503330842993aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33308653331743879dihydrodipicolinate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33319663332721756dihydrodipicolinate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
333326133344301170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP