Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3110772 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31107723111098327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
311111031125401431hypothetical proteinBLASTP
311254031136251086hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31136293114498870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
311451131196555145TP901 family phage tail tape measure proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31197083119890183hypothetical protein
31199113120240330hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31202413120840600phi13 family phage major tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31208433121184342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
31212733121647375HK97 family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31216493122008360phage head-tail adaptorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31219593122258300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
312226831234131146major capsid proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31234133124156744Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
312415931252201062HK97 family phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
312532631269721647phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31269563127447492phage terminase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31279393128247309hypothetical protein
31284443128989546phage integrase family site specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31289863129201216hypothetical proteinBLASTP