Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:3071198 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30711983071896699diacylglycerol kinasePAP2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30719353072435501metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
307243230745192088hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
307454230757021161stage IV sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30756923075988297sporulation protein YqfCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30761023076548447GatBYqey domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3076591307676717730S ribosomal protein S21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30769043077248345HIT family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
307730530786031299RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3078603307936175916S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RsmEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3079459308039793950S ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308057530817201146chaperone protein DnaJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308186330837341872molecular chaperone DnaKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30837893084433645heat shock protein GrpEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308446030854911032heat-inducible transcription repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308569230868341143coproporphyrinogen III oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
308686130886691809GTP-binding protein LepAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30888103089205396hypothetical proteinBLASTP
308927630903671092stage II sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
30905523091526975germination proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3091736309200226730S ribosomal protein S20QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
309203730930681032DNA polymerase III subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP