Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:275919 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
275919276050132hypothetical protein
276441276599159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
276613276762150hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2777372791611425amino acid decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
279349280200852flagellin proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2805592821781620vanadium-dependent haloperoxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
282562283221660hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2835622846711110hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2851732863451173malic enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2865572875319752-keto-3-deoxygluconate permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2877452893671623sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289345290019675response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2905762920391464lysine-specific permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
292583293317735metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293431293943513acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
293969294346378cytidinedeoxycytidylate deaminase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP