Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2680607 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268060726817761170metallo-beta-lactamase family proteinflavodoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26823232682829507hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26838812684744864IUNH family nucleoside hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26847622685298537peptide deformylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26855152686165651V-type ATP synthase subunit DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268619426875791386V-type ATP synthase subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268757226893501779V-type ATP synthase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26893642689672309V-type ATP synthase subunit FQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268966526906661002V-type ATP synthase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26906812691280600V-type ATPase E subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26913192691795477V-type ATP synthase subunit KQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269180826937691962V-type ATP synthase subunit IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26937562694082327V-type ATPase G subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269438826960671680B12-binding Fe-S oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26960422696617576hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26967892697508720phospholipase CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269753026987291200hypothetical proteinBLASTP
269876727013132547ATPase PQuickGO ontologyBLASTP