Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2558286 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25582862558540255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25586192559494876hypothetical protein
25596462559819174hypothetical protein
25600432560585543hypothetical protein
25609152561097183hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25610992561425327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
256143725628461410hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25628462563724879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25639172564783867phage tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256480025701125313TP901 family phage tail tape measure proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25703672570693327hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25707292571310582phi13 family phage major tail proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25713132571657345hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25716542572028375HK97 family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25720302572356327phage head-tail adaptorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25723372572657321QlrG family phage proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25726742572829156Rho termination factor domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257284925739761128phage capsid proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25739692574727759Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257471725759011185HK97 family phage portal proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257591725776171701phage terminase large subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25776142578078465P27 family phage terminase small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25781142578467354hypothetical protein
25785542579027474hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25790272579320294hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25793222579627306hypothetical protein
25798922580074183hypothetical protein
25801032580378276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25805322581077546phage integrase family site specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25810742581289216hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25815132581902390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25818922582059168hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25822172583062846phage integrase family site specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25833532583484132hypothetical proteinBLASTP
258357525846241050hypothetical proteinBLASTP