Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2478261 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
247826124793371077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24795542479751198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
247989224813371446amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24814902482359870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24824022482527126hypothetical protein
24826172482733117hypothetical protein
248288424838911008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24839052484375471PrdE proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24843892485165777PrdD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24863072486582276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
248659124887022112D-proline reductase subunit PrdAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24906842491346663hypothetical proteinBLASTP
249138624926901305electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
24926892492805117hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2492961249303575hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24932832493618336hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24936052493850246hypothetical protein
24938152494294480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24943982494697300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
24947702495198429PrdA domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
249522924965391311electron transport proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
249671524984691755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
249880525000341230hypothetical proteinBLASTP