Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2265409 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
226540922667521344xanthineuracil permease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22673202268087768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
226842822697471320amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227002622707997742-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227087622725071632hypothetical proteinBLASTP
227280822738571050electron transfer flavoprotein subunit alphaFixB family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22738762274661786electron transfer flavoprotein subunit betaFixA family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227470022758331134acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227609822772251128R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227722522784571233R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
227852022797341215hydroxyacyl-CoAR-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22804782281299822Fe-S-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228185122831221272R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228312522848191695R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase subunit R-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA dehydratase activaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
228511822862691152methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22863262286439114hypothetical protein
22868702287469600hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22878832288476594acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP