Pre_GI Gene

Some Help

Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2173000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217341621750861671hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21756352175925291microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21759992176649651propanediol utilization protein PduL-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
217664921782471599acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21782822179079798microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21791002179762663ethanolamine utilization protein EutQ-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21799612180224264polyhedral organelle formation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21802212180523303hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21806012181446846ethanolamine utilization protein EutJ family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21814282182156729hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21821632182609447EutPPduV family GTP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21826062182959354ethanolamine utilization protein EutS-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21829992183952954glycyl-radical enzyme activating family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218411621866562541formate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
218670621881991494aldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21882372188545309microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21885692188865297microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21889382189090153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21891692189435267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
218942221905341113hypothetical proteinBLASTP
21910202191850831MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
219196721931091143alcohol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP