Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:2012500 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20125532013179627NADPH-dependent FMN reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20144732015471999internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
201549320175412049carbohydrate binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
201770320197932091sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20201562020410255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20204232020791369endoribonuclease L-PSPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202083320221281296sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202215020233191170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202363320249251293hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20249612025095135hypothetical protein
20252652026260996internalinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
202628120285002220hypothetical proteinBLASTP
202870120301401440sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20301302030795666DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20309562031081126hypothetical protein
20312952032110816hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20321362032861726ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
203290620343391434ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP