Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:1985187 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198332819851901863ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinpermeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198518719875142328ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinpermeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19879181988361444MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19886731989356684molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19893581989585228molybdopterin converting factor subunit 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198973819915551818aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase tungsten-containingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199196419938591896aor transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19939091994349441MOSC domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19943511994830480molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19948341995793960molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199585219977561905molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeALysR substrate binding-domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199776819989941227molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MoeAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19990181999506489molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MogQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19996012000293693tungstate ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20002902000961672tungstate ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20009702001821852tungstate ABC transporter tungstate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
200204020033621323MATE efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20033622003559198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20038002004444645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20047662005437672ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP