Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:1336889 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13368891337116228rubredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
133714813386081461glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13386481339589942thioredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13403861340763378GrdX proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134085413421401287glycine reductase complex component B alpha and beta subunitsQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13436251344566942thioredoxin-disulfide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13446001344920321thioredoxin family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134557713471151539glycine reductase complex component C subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134713113482971167glycine reductase complex component C subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134872413493356123-methyladenine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134940113516262226restriction endonuclease family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135206213532731212methylthioribose kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135341313544621050methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13544861354596111hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13546131355260648aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13553041355444141hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13554341356228795DeoR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP