Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:120117 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
120117120755639zinc-dependent hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1211971243133117isoleucyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
124464125462999LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1256781297304053hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1298051308721068mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferasemannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1312081324971290hypothetical proteinBLASTP
132502133308807hypothetical proteinBLASTP
133328134074747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1342991356811383radical SAM domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1358681371421275sugar-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1372441383591116mannosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1385251395351011spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
139550139744195hypothetical protein
139771140538768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1405511415641014spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1419191430461128glycoside hydrolase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1431631441671005spore coat protein CotSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP