Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:482500 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
482810483538729CobBCobQ family glutamine amidotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4835964849571362UDP-N-acetylmuramyl tripeptide synthetase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
485222486202981mannose-6-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4865514876661116lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
487774488628855UDP pyrophosphate phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
49068349075876tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4939484940731265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
49407349414775tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
494523495386864metallo beta-lactamase superfamily lipoproteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4955234962457231-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4969934983511359HMGL-related enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4984955004201926aconitate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5004535014541002isocitrateisopropylmalate family dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
501763502488726polar amino acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
504799505014216hypothetical proteinBLASTP