Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:3735703 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373570337367641062DNA integrity scanning protein DisAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373678337381411359DNA repair protein RadAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
373826137406962436negative regulator of genetic competence MecBClpCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
374069837417411044ATPguanido phosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37417463742273528UVR domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37422963742760465transciptional repressor CtsRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37431563743386231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
374373337458052073elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3745993374606775tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
3746095374616975tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
3751251375132676tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375682037581961377UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
375902237604131392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376073337622471515lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37622663762748483transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37628793763706828hypothetical proteinBLASTP
37637563764727972dihydrouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37647373765513777pantothenate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376566837673411674formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376754437693491806ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
37694313769976546hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
376996037713661407tRNAIle-lysidine synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP