Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:3502000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
350200135033231323branched chain amino acid ABC transporter carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
350378235053141533GMP synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35072213507970750PP-loop family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
350804935096741626molecular chaperone GroELQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35097043509991288co-chaperonin GroESQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35103073510951645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
35109463511680735hypothetical proteinBLASTP
351213335136291497Fe hydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351379935147169188-oxoguanine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351486635162511386oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35162513517141891ferredoxin-NADP reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35173723518004633redox-sensing transcriptional repressor RexQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
351820435201261923drug resistance ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
35204673521231765DNA-binding response regulator LytTr familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
352123235228661635sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
352310935245271419carbon starvation protein CstAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP