Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:3340000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33402903341189900hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33413443342051708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
334225933438301572ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33438323344527696ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3345133334520876tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3345212334528877tRNA-AspQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3345294334536976tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33454343346324891Hsp33-like chaperoninQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33463623347102741hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33471883347460273small acid-soluble spore proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33477593348718960oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
334871833497401023oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33497513350668918oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33506843351613930oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
335169433533761683oligopeptidedipeptide ABC transporter oligopeptidedipeptide-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33538613354853993aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33548763355754879dihydrodipicolinate synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33559773356732756dihydrodipicolinate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
335727233584411170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP