Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:3309550 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
330955033112771728phosphoglucomutasephosphomannomutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3312263331279953750S ribosomal protein L25QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
331300633144661461OrnLysArg decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33146513315484834hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33156823316584903phosphate acetylbutyryl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
331702833180411014dehydrogenase FMN-dependentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33182773318747471hypothetical proteinBLASTP
331893533213012367recombination and DNA strand exchange inhibitor proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
332143433238002367peptidase U32 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
33243743325252879hypothetical proteinBLASTP
332545833272841827hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33274553327607153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33277873328065279hypothetical proteinBLASTP
33289043329494591hypothetical proteinBLASTP
332969933320802382phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP