Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:3138355 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.


This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31383553139053699diacylglycerol kinasePAP2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31390923139592501metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
313958931416762088hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314169931428591161stage IV sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31428493143145297sporulation protein YqfCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31432593143705447GatBYqey domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3143748314392417730S ribosomal protein S21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31440613144405345HIT family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314446231457601299MiaB family RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3145760314651875916S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RsmEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3146616314755493950S ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314773231488771146molecular chaperone DnaJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
314902031508911872molecular chaperone DnaKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31509463151590645heat shock protein GrpEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315161731526481032heat-inducible transcription repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315284931540001152coproporphyrinogen III oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
315401831558261809GTP-binding protein LepAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31559673156362396hypothetical proteinBLASTP
315643331575241092stage II sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31577093158683975germination proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP