Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2876865 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
287686528782861422glycosyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28782952878642348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
287864628803611716hypothetical proteinBLASTP
288037428822751902glycosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28824982883325828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28835392884366828flagellinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28845162884857342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
288488428873192436flagellar hook-associated protein 2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28873732887771399flagellar protein FliSQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28877992888098300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
28881532888509357flagellar protein FlaGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28885252888743219carbon storage regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28887432889174432flagellar assembly protein FliWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28892632890225963flagellar hook-associated protein 3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289024328921111869flagellar hook-associated protein FlgKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28924002892804405flgN family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28928042893085282regulator of flagellin synthesis FlgMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289358228947421161flagellar motor switch proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28947352895730996flagellar motor switch protein FliMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28957582896153396chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28962532896612360chemotaxis protein CheYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28966402897239600chemotaxis protein CheCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289726528993402076chemotaxis protein CheAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
28993532900123771chemotaxis protein CheRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290013829012021065protein-glutamate methylesterase CheBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29012252901713489chemoreceptor glutamine deamidase CheDQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
29017302902176447chemotaxis protein CheWQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
290219229042252034hypothetical proteinBLASTP
290447829064331956PTS system glucose family transporter subunit IIABCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP