Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:280000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2814312827621332FAD-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
282837283226390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
283372283599228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
283613283762150hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2847372861611425amino acid decarboxylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
286349287200852flagellin proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2875592891781620vanadium-dependent haloperoxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
289562290221660hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2905622916711110hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2921732933451173malic enzymeQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2935572945319752-keto-3-deoxygluconate permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2947452963671623sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
296345297019675response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
299583300317735metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
300431300943513GNAT family acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
300969301346378cytidinedeoxycytidylate deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
301505302407903GNAT family acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP