Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2685646 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26856462686398753hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26864302687233804recombinase phage RecT familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
268825126899211671penicillin-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26900072690627621uridine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269077526920011227peptidase U32 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26919942692650657O-methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269273326937641032hypothetical proteinBLASTP
269384226956681827GTP-binding protein TypAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269631226980151704RNA-metabolizing metallo-beta-lactamaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26980692698521453FUR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26986432698897255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26989112699324414Holliday junction resolvase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26995312699782252hypothetical proteinBLASTP
270303527040631029hypothetical proteinBLASTP
27040762704564489PRC-barrel domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27047462705174429iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
270517627063691194cysteine desulfuraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
27063622706808447transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
270702827082781251recombination factor protein RarAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP