Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2606238 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
260623826073141077hypothetical proteinBLASTP
260786926093141446amino acid permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26094672610336870hypothetical proteinBLASTP
261077126117781008proline racemaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26117922612262471PrdE proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26122762613052777PrdD proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26141942614469276hypothetical proteinBLASTP
261447826165862109subunit of proline reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26166112616787177hypothetical proteinBLASTP
261680926179271119electron transferring subunit of proline reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
261926926205731305electron transferring subunit of proline reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
26211662621693528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26216982622177480hypothetical proteinBLASTP
26222812622580300hypothetical proteinBLASTP
262311226244221311electron transferring subunit of proline reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
262459826263521755sensory box sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
262668826279171230hypothetical proteinBLASTP