Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2571732 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257173225728171086DNA protecting protein DprAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
257301725745401524Mg chelatase-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25745562574927372hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25750102575819810ribonuclease HIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25761162576994879ribosomal biogenesis GTPaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25772992577823525signal peptidase IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2577882257822634550S ribosomal protein L19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25783772579099723tRNA guanine-N1--methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2579090257958449516S rRNA-processing protein RimMQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25796972579924228hypothetical proteinBLASTP
2579945258019324930S ribosomal protein S16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258022425815731350signal recognition particle proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25815862581918333DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25821422583053912signal recognition particle-docking protein FtsYQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258321625867973582chromosome segregation protein SMCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258706125881521092radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25881452588858714ribonuclease IIIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25889612589203243acyl carrier proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
258927225902791008glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase PlsXQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2590369259056019250S ribosomal protein L32QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
259118225923751194acetate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25925152593513999phosphotransacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25938472594725879hypothetical proteinBLASTP