Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2524000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252413125255611431adenylosuccinate lyaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25258042526034231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25260622526319258phosphocarrier protein HPrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
252643025276231194aspartate aminotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25277682528124357hypothetical proteinBLASTP
252812125294041284hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25294232530289867phosphoribose diphosphatedecaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25304522530712261stage V sporulation protein SQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253085125323921542phosphodiesteraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253262725336851059recombinase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25338332534426594CDP-diacylglycerol--glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253440125357381338MiaB family RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253583325381092277DNA translocase FtsKSpoIIIEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25385902539282693Clp proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
253953025407351206aspartate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25407512541023273PRC-barrel domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254110025424011302peptidase M16 familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254257625446842109polynucleotide phosphorylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2544948254521126430S ribosomal protein S15QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25453442546264921bifunctional riboflavin kinaseFMN adenylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25462772547146870tRNA pseudouridine synthase BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25471472548118972DHH family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25480992548461363ribosome-binding factor AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
254849225505582067translation initiation factor IF-2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25505762550893318ribosomal protein L7Ae family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25508802551152273hypothetical proteinBLASTP
255121225525851374transcription elongation factor NusAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
25526022553063462hypothetical proteinBLASTP
25531282553268141hypothetical protein
255336825576664299DNA polymerase III PolCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP