Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2244774 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224477422464441671glycosyl hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22469932247283291microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22473572248007651propanediol utilization protein PduL-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
224800722496051599acetaldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22496402250437798propanediolethanolamine utilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22504582251120663ethanolamine utilization protein EutQ-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22513192251582264polyhedral organelle formation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22515792251881303hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22519592252804846ethanolamine utilization protein EutJ family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22527862253514729hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22535212253949429GTP-binding protein EutPPduV familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22539642254317354ethanolamine utilization protein EutS-like proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22543572255319963glycyl-radical activating family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225547422580142541formate acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
225806422595571494aldehyde dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22595952259903309microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22599272260223297microcompartments family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
22602962260448153hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22605272260793267hypothetical proteinBLASTP
226078022618921113hypothetical proteinBLASTP
22623782263208831MerR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP