Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2085000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20852172085378162hypothetical protein
20858322086830999leucine-rich repeat-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208685220889002049secreted carbohydrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
208906220911522091sigma-54 dependent transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20915152091769255hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20917822092150369endoribonuclease L-PSPQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209219220934631272sodiumdicarboxylate symporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209350920946781170aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209499220962841293hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20966242097619996leucine-rich repeat-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
209764020998592220secreted proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
210006021014991440sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21014892102154666DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
21026542103469816hypothetical proteinBLASTP