Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:2056546 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
205468720565491863ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinpermeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
205654620588732328ABC transporter permeaseATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20592772059720444MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20600322060715684molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20607172060944228molybdopterin converting factor subunit 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206109720629141818aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20630292063154126hypothetical protein
206332320652181896aor transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20652682065708441MOSC domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20657102066189480molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20661932067152960molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206721120691151905LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
206912720703531227molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20703772070865489molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MogQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20709602071652693tungstate ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20716492072320672tungstate ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20723292073180852tungstate ABC transporter tungstate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207339920747211323drugsodium antiporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20747212074918198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20751592075803645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20761252076796672ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
207681120782741464ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP