Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:183767 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1837671849241158UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
185416185784369ATP synthase IQuickGO ontology
185799186479681ATP synthase F0F1 subunit AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
186519186758240F0F1 ATP synthase subunit CQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
186834187313480ATP synthase F0F1 subunit BQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
187316187855540ATP synthase F0F1 subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1878661893801515ATP synthase F0F1 subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
189402190250849ATP synthase F0F1 subunit gammaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1902641916551392ATP synthase F0F1 subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
191680192081402ATP synthase F0F1 subunit epsilonQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
192274192981708hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1930051942611257UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1945311956071077stage II sporulation protein DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
196139196885747peptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
196993197247255stage III sporulation protein DQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1973471983751029rod shape-determining protein MblQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198500199024525hypothetical proteinBLASTP
199073199795723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20002320009876tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20010420018885tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20020220027776tRNA-ValQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20029520037076tRNA-ThrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20037620046085tRNA-TyrQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2021422043762235helicase RecDTraA familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2044022054241023hypothetical proteinBLASTP
205451206074624phosphoribosyl transferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP