Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:1759759 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17590801759769690hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1759759176213723795-methyltetrahydrofolate--homocysteine methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17623841762803420hypothetical protein
17632821763854573RNA polymerase factor sigma-70QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
176384717653011455hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17655341765641108hypothetical protein
176565117676031953signal-transduction and transcriptional-control proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17677721768143372hypothetical proteinBLASTP
17681641769147984TPP-dependent acetoin dehydrogenase complex E1 component subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17691501770121972TPP-dependent acetoin dehydrogenase complex E1 component subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17701741771169996acetoin catabolism protein XQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177120517725151311TPP-dependent acetoin dehydrogenase complex E2 component dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177252817739191392TPP-dependent acetoin dehydrogenase complex E3 component dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17739441774939996lipoate-protein ligase AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177527817764381161glycine betaineL-proline ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177642817780141587glycine betaineL-proline ABC transporter permeasesubstrate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
177882917803101482threonine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
17803201781213894homoserine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
178134017826591320aspartate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP