Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:1516000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15165151517279765peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
151726615191551890peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15193281519825498hypothetical proteinBLASTP
15202651520966702DNA-binding response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15209681521945978sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15220041522759756peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
152274915245571809peptide ABC transporter Pep4E family permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15246261525348723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
152572415267281005hypothetical proteinBLASTP
152711215282901179aminotransferase classes I and IIQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15283781529043666amino acid ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15290621529799738polar amino acid ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15301941530442249DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
153064115319151275D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15322141532837624pyrophosphatase MutTnudix familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15328881533235348hypothetical proteinBLASTP
153357115347341164NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
15351181535342225hypothetical proteinBLASTP
153550015370351536C4-dicarboxylate transporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
153717415386551482nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP