Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:1368000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13682691368496228rubredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
136852813699881461NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13700281370969942thioredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13717661372143378GrdX proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
137223413735201287glycine reductase complex component B alpha and beta subunitsQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13750051375946942thioredoxin-disulfide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13759801376300321thioredoxin family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
137695713784951539glycine reductase complex component C subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
137851113796771167glycine reductase complex component C subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138010413807156123-methyladenine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138078113830062226restriction endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138344213846531212methylthioribose kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
138479313858421050methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13859931386640648AraDFucA subfamily aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13868141387608795DeoR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13879151388274360hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13886281389503876cation efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP