Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:87581 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
875818808750750S ribosomal protein L10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
881448850936650S ribosomal protein L7L12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8890189689789NADP-dependent 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
90160938763717DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
93918974033486DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chainQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
976839811443230S ribosomal protein S12QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
982389870847130S ribosomal protein S7QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
987571008232067translation elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1009161021091194elongation factor TUQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10248110279231230S ribosomal protein S10QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10288410351363050S ribosomal protein L3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10351310416665450S ribosomal protein L4QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10416610445629150S ribosomal protein L23QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10448610531683150S ribosomal protein L2QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10535110563228230S ribosomal protein S19QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10566410599933650S ribosomal protein L22QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10602210683781630S ribosomal protein S3QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10687310730443250S ribosomal protein L16QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10730610750920450S ribosomal protein L29QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10753310778725530S ribosomal protein S17QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
10781310818136950S ribosomal protein L14QuickGO ontologyBLASTP