Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:873295 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8732958744371143hypothetical proteinBLASTP
874523874654132probable sugar O-acetyltransferase partialQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
874770875681912putative phosphate butyryltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8762888782071920putative bifunctional carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
878517879296780putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenase accessory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8795458812211677formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
881326881958633methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
882050882922873FolD bifunctional proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
882959883633675hypothetical proteinBLASTP
883669884550882putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8845948859791386putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
886035886805771putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complexnickel-inserting subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
886825887769945putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex small subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8878008891671368putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex alpha subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
889217890023807putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complexmethyltransferase subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8900808922062127putative carbon monoxide dehydrogenaseacetyl-CoA synthase complex beta subunitQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
892293892670378putative glycine cleavage system H proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8927828947101929putative iron-sulfur proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
894735895607873putative radical SAM superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
895604896542939putative radical SAM superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
896589897404816putative biotinlipoate-protein ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
897554897745192hypothetical proteinBLASTP
897764898180417hypothetical proteinBLASTP
898196898546351hypothetical proteinBLASTP
899092899871780putative histidinol phosphataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP