Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:581655 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
581655582062408PTS system IIa componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
582091582564474PTS system IIb componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
582611583369759PTS system IIc componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
583393584232840PTS system IId componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
585695586009315conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
586031586417387conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5864515878361386conjugative transposon FtsKSpoIIIE-family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
587839587991153conjugative transposon hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontology
5880105892181209putative conjugative transposon replication initiation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
589261589482222conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
589599590096498conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
590184590576393conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5905605930072448conjugative transposon ATPGTP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5930075951752169conjugative transposon membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5951725988203649putative cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5968305986591830group II intron reverse transcriptasematuraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
598817599749933putative conjugative transposon exported proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
59996560001854tetM leader peptideQuickGO ontology
6000346019531920conjugative transposon tetracycline resistance proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
602106602234129conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
602302602655354putative conjugative transposon regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
60286660293166putative conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontology
603157603582426putative conjugative transposon regulatory proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
603579603809231conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
603934604116183conjugative transposon protein partialQuickGO ontology
6044276060281602conjugative transposon site-specific recombinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP