Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:478328 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
478328479050723putative RNA pseudouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4790684804351368putative tRNA Uracil-5--methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
480432480590159hypothetical proteinBLASTP
480597480878282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
480966481745780putative replication initiation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
481742482593852putative DNA replication proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
482590483075486hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4830724848561785putative conjugal transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
48490348499593hypothetical protein
485020485331312putative single-strand binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
485335485550216putativel membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
485569486432864hypothetical proteinBLASTP
486450486713264hypothetical proteinBLASTP
486717487106390hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4870544894472394putative conjugal transfer proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4894514915832133hypothetical proteinBLASTP
491595491834240hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4918094933501542putative cell surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4934454951511707putative DNA topoisomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
495221496039819hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4961225048458724putative helicaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
504870505547678putative single-strand binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5056165069471332putative mobilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
506953507303351putative mobilization proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
507601507825225putative DNA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
507900508880981AraC-family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
509017509619603hypothetical proteinBLASTP
509624510316693hypothetical proteinBLASTP
5103285118001473ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5117905135201731ABC transporter ATP-bindingpermease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5135215152691749ABC transporter ATP-bindingpermease proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5152855166371353putative drugsodium antiporterQuickGO ontologyBLASTP