Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009089 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009089:428075 Clostridium difficile 630, complete genome

Host Lineage: Peptoclostridium difficile; Peptoclostridium; Peptostreptococcaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is the epidemic type X variant that has been extensively studied in research and clinical laboratories. It produces both toxin A, and B. Causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This species is now recognized as the major causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic treatment. This bacterium causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild, self-limiting diarrhea to serious diarrhea and, in some cases, complications such as pseudomembrane formation, toxic megacolon (dilation of the colon) and peritonitis, which often lead to lethality among patients. The bacteria produce high molecular mass polypeptide cytotoxins, A and B. Some strains produce only one of the toxins, others produce both. Toxin A causes inflammatory reaction involving hypersecretion of fluid and hemorrhagic necrosis through triggering cytokine release by neutrophils. Alteration of intestinal microbial balance with antibiotic therapy and increased exposure to the bacterium in a hospital setting allows C. difficile to colonize susceptible individuals. Moreover, it has been shown that subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics promote increased toxin production by C. difficile.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
428111428677567hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4288514300411191integraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
430119430322204excisionaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
430397430504108hypothetical protein
430695430949255conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
430953431381429conjugative transposon conserved hypothetical proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
431667432041375putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4320904331001011two-component system sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
433088433771684two-component system response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4338064357821977putative lantibiotic ABC transporter membrane proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
435772436542771putative lantibiotic ABC transporterATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
436715437446732putative lantibiotic ABC transporter permease proteinQuickGO ontology
437439438365927putative lantibiotic ABC transporterATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
438435439349915two-component system sensor histidine kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
439346440038693two-component system response regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
440069440314246hypothetical proteinBLASTP
440311440511201putative transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
440599441510912conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4415264425331008putative cell wall hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4425304447402211conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4447374471872451conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
447165447563399conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
447677448180504conjugative tranposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
448198448701504conjugative tansposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
448992449213222conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
449214449357144conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4493604504721113putative conjugative transposon replication initiation factorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
450811451224414hypothetical protein
4512214525911371conjugative transposon FtsKSpoIIIE-related proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
452608452997390conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
453006453332327conjugative transposon proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
453368453553186hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4535664566103045putative collagen-binding surface proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4574104592721863PTS system beta-glucoside-specific IIabc componentQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45927546074114676-phospho-beta-glucosidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
460765461601837beta-glucoside bgl operon transcription antiterminatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4621844637671584asparagine synthetase glutamine-hydrolyzingQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
463846464442597Radical SAM-superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
464469464996528hypothetical proteinBLASTP
465358466356999R-2-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP